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Niobium is the chemical element with the symbol Nb and the atomic number 41. A rare, soft, grey, ductile transition metal, niobium is found in the minerals pyrochlore, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite.
Niobium is used in various superconducting materials. These superconducting alloys, also containing titanium and tin, are widely used in the superconducting magnets of MRI scanners. Other applications of niobium include its use in welding, nuclear industries, electronics, optics, numismatics and jewelry. In the last two applications, niobium's low toxicity and ability to be coloured by anodisation are particular advantages.
100 gms soapwort root(Saponaria Officinalis)
1 lit water
Mix soapwort root and boiling water,after 10 minutes of soaking it is ready to use.Fresh solution is pH neutral,few days old slightly acidic(pH 5)
 Structural consolidation
 Protective coatings
 Further reading
Untracht,O. Jewelry Concepts and Technology,New York 1982.
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